Erik Lumme.dev

Simple Access Control in Vaadin

Posted 30 Jan 2020 by Erik Lumme

Some things are best kept secret. This goes for data too. In this tutorial, you will learn how to implement a simple access-control system using plain Vaadin and Java.

We do this in four steps: create the login view, authorize the user, authenticate the user, and create the logout button.

This tutorial does not cover how the user credentials are stored, nor how to protect static resources, such as CSS and images.

The methods used here can be applied to most Vaadin projects, but they are written for the Plain Java Servlet starter found at vaadin.com/start, which at the time of writing uses Vaadin version 14.1.5.

After downloading and unzipping the project, it can be run using mvn jetty:run from the command line. The application and the MainView are then accessible at localhost:8080.

Creating the login screen

Logging in requires a login screen. For simplicity’s sake, we use Vaadin’s LoginForm.

Let’s create a class, LoginView, that extends VerticalLayout, and has a private field containing the LoginForm.

It’s good practice to defer component initialization until it is attached. This avoids potentially running costly code for a component that is never displayed to the user. Due to Flow bug #4595, in some Vaadin versions the constructor is run even when access to the component is restricted through the BeforeEnterEvent event.

We can do the initialization by overriding the onAttach method. To only run it once, we check if this is the first attach event, using the AttachEvent#isInitialAttach method.

LoginView.java

We can then create the initialization method, where we instantiate the login form. We align the form in the center, both horizontally and vertically, and then hide the Forgot password? option from the login form before adding it to the layout.

LoginView.java

To enable navigating to the view, we annotate it with @Route. When no route is specified, the route will be the class name without “view”, in this case login.

The login event can be handled by this view by implementing ComponentEventListener<AbstractLogin.LoginEvent>, and in the initialization method by adding the view as a listener using loginForm.addLoginListener(this);.

For now, the component event listener method can just set an error on the form, which displays a message that the username or password is incorrect.

LoginView.java

After rebuilding or restarting the application, we can now navigate to http://localhost:8080/login, and see that no matter the username and password we enter, we always get an error message.

Authorizing the user

Authorization is the process of determining if a user can perform a particular action. In our case, a user is authorized to access any view if the user is authenticated. Authorization is done before entering any view.

Let’s start by creating a class SecurityService, that is responsible for checking if the user is authenticated. We make this a singleton class by creating a private constructor, and returning a static instance in a getInstance() method.

The getInstance() method may be synchronized to protect against creating multiple instances due to concurrent access. In this case, as no state is stored in the class, we omit it to improve performance.

When the user logs in, we store the username as a session attribute under an arbitrary key. As such, we can check if the user is logged in by checking if that attribute is set.

SecurityService.java

Next, we need to call this method before entering any view. For this, we utilize a BeforeEnterListener added to every UI. We can use a VaadinServiceInitListener to add it whenever a UI is created.

We create a class implementing the VaadinServiceInitListener interface, and implement the serviceInit method.

For this to be registered on startup, we must create the src/main/resources/META-INF/services/ directory and add a file named com.vaadin.flow.server.VaadinServiceInitListener. The only content in the file should be the fully qualified name of our service init listener, in our case, org.vaadin.erik.MyServiceInitListener.

Now that we have hooked onto the service initialization, we can use the initialization event to listen for UI initializations. Next, we change our class to also implement UIInitListener, and register it through the ServiceInitEvent.

MyServiceInitListener.java

We now go further down the rabbit hole by implementing the uiInit method to add the class as a BeforeEnterListener to the newly created UI. For this, we also need to implement BeforeEnterListener.

MyServiceInitListener.java

Finally, we implement the beforeEnter method to check if the user is authenticated, and if not, forward the user to the login view.

MyServiceInitListener.java

When navigating to the LoginView, the code includes a special case to avoid getting stuck in the loop of repeatedly forwarding the user to LoginView, by triggering the beforeEnter method again and again.

Instead, if the user is logged in, they are forwarded to the MainView. No action is taken otherwise.

Running the application now, you can see that the MainView is no longer accessible, and navigating to http://localhost:8080 forwards you to the login view.

Authenticating the user

Now we can move on to authenticating the user, by determining if the provided username and password is correct or not.

We add a method to the SecurityService called authenticate, that takes a username and password as arguments, and returns true if the authentication is successful. If this is the case, it also stores the username in the session.

This tutorial does not cover the authentication process in detail, instead we store the username and password directly in the class file. This means that anyone with access to the source code can see the credentials. As a minimum, the password should be hashed using a hashing function like Bcrypt.

SecurityService.java

In the login view, we call this method, and only set an error if the method returns false. Otherwise, we redirect the user to the MainView. As we have now hardcoded the value MainView.class twice in the project, we should add a method in the security service that returns the default view, and change the prior uses to use this new method.

LoginView.java
SecurityService.java

At this point, we can log in to the application with the credentials admin/password. We can not yet log out, however.

Logging out

To be able to log out, we need a method in the SecurityService for logging out. This method does two things:

  • It invalidates the wrapped HttpSession, closing all VaadinSession instances that it contains. This causes a new VaadinSession to be created upon the next navigation, effectively clearing the stored user.
  • It redirects the user to the login view.
SecurityService.java

All servlets in a WAR-file share the same HttpSession, but have their own VaadinSession instances. If you only want to close a particular Vaadin session, call VaadinSession.getCurrent().close().

Now we need to call this method from somewhere. We can add a button for logging out to the MainView, and at the same time move all initialization to onAttach, as we did in the login view. We also remove the default components from the main view.

MainView.java

The button simply calls the logOut method. We set the left margin to auto, in order to float the button to the right.

When we now test the application, we cannot access the MainView at first. After logging in, but only with the correct credentials, we are forwarded to the main view. Navigating to the login view now brings us right back to the main view.

After clicking the logout button, we can no longer access the main view, unless we log in again.

Congratulations, access control is now set up in your application!

The complete code can be found on GitHub.